Thursday, July 31, 2008

Sunday, July 27, 2008

98 Ways To Catch A Buzz

Civil War Alcoholic Drink Recipes

From "Reminiscences Of The Civil War"

Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon, CSA"
When the proud and sensitive sons of Dixie came to a full realization of the truth that the Confederacy was overthrown and their leader had been compelled to surrender his once invincible army, they could no longer control their emotions, and tears ran like water down their shrunken faces. The flags which they still carried were objects of undisguised affection. These Southern banners had gone down before overwhelming numbers; and torn by shells, riddled by bullets, and laden with the powder and smoke of battle, they aroused intense emotion in the men who had so often followed them to victory. Yielding to overpowering sentiment, these high-mettled men began to tear the flags from the staffs and hide them in their bosoms, as they wet them with burning tears.
The Confederate officers faithfully endeavored to check this exhibition of loyalty and love for the old flags. A great majority of them were duly surrendered; but many were secretly carried by devoted veterans to their homes, and will be cherished forever as honored heirlooms.
There was nothing unnatural or censurable in all this. The Confederates who clung to those pieces of battered bunting knew they would never again wave as martial ensigns above embattled hosts; but they wanted to keep them, just as they wanted to keep the old canteen with a bullet-hole through it, or the rusty gray jacket that had been torn by canister. They loved those flags, and will love them forever, as mementoes of the unparalleled struggle. They cherish them because they represent the consecration and courage not only of Lee's army but of all the Southern armies, because they symbolize the bloodshed and the glory of nearly a thousand battles.
Some narrow but very good and patriotic people object to this expression of Southern sentiment. It was not so, however, with William McKinley, that typical American, who, while living and while dying, exhibited in their fulness and strength the virtues of a true and lofty manhood. That chivalric Union soldier, far-seeing statesman, and truly great President saw in this Southern fidelity to past memories the surest pledge of loyalty to future duties. William McKinley fought as bravely as the bravest on the Union side; but he was broad enough to recognize in his Southern countrymen a loyal adherence to the great fundamental truths to which both sides were devoted. He was too wise and too just to doubt the South's fealty to the Constitution or to the doctrines of the Declaration of Independence; for Madison was father of the one and Jefferson of the other. He was great enough to trust implicitly the South's renewed allegiance to the Union and its flag; for hers was the most liberal hand in studding its field with stars. He did not hesitate to trust Southern pluck and patriotism to uphold the honor of the country and give liberty to Cuba; for he remembered Washington and his rebels in the Revolution, Jackson and his Southern volunteers at New Orleans; Zachary Taylor and his Louisianians, Clay and his Kentuckians, Butler and his South Carolinians, and Davis and his Mississippians in Mexico.
The heartstrings of the mother, woven around the grave of her lost child, will never be severed while she lives; but does that hinder the continued flow of maternal devotion to those who are left her? The South's affections are bound, with links that cannot be broken, around the graves of her sons who fell in her defence, and to the mementoes and memories of the great struggle; but does that fact lessen her loyalty to the proud emblem of a reunited country? Does her unparalleled defence of the now dead Confederacy argue less readiness to battle for this ever-living Republic, in the making and the administering of which she bore so conspicuous a part?
If those unhappy patriots who find a scarecrow in every faded, riddled Confederate flag would delve deeper into the philosophy of human nature, or rise higher,--say to the plane on which McKinley stood,--they would be better satisfied with their Southern countrymen, with Southern sentiment, with the breadth and strength of the unobtrusive but sincere Southern patriotism. They would see that man is so constituted--the immutable laws of our being are such that to stifle the sentiment and extinguish the hallowed memories of a people is to destroy their manhood.

16th Tennessee Casualties (Killed and died)

16th Tennessee Casualties (Killed and died)

Notice all the men who died at the Battle of Murfreesboro

Roster of Tennessee Soldiers Buried in Confederate Cemetery, Forsyth, Georgia

Captain James Blackburn - Company C, 16th Tennessee Infantry; Died: Aug 2, 1864.
Private Jaspher W. Downs - Company K, 38th Tennessee Infantry; Died: Sept 15, 1864.
Private James Edwards - Company C, 37th Tennessee Infantry; Died: Dec 21, 1863.
Sergeant William R. Gardner - Company C, 23rd Battalion Tennessee Infantry; Died: Sep 13, 1864.
Private William T. Goodwin - Company G, 50th Tennessee Infantry; Died: Sep 10, 1864.
2nd Lieutenant Robert C. Goostree - Company A, 49th Tennessee Infantry; Died: Sep 10, 1864.
M. L. Harris - Company H, 12th (Cons.) Tennessee Infantry; Died: Jul 30, 1864.
Private Robert J. Harrison - Company H, 45th Tennessee Infantry; Died: Oct 1, 1864.
Private James B. Hazlett - Company G, 32nd Tennessee Infantry; Died: Jul 20, 1864.
Sergeant Elisha G. Hopper - Company I, 32nd Tennessee Infantry; Died: Aug 24, 1864.
Private John W. Hughes - Company G, 27th Tennessee Infantry; Died: Jul 26, 1864.
Private James H. Long - Company A, 11th Tennessee Infantry; Died: Sep 17, 1864.
Captain George A. Lowe - Company B, 42nd Tennessee Infantry; Died: Aug 3, 1864.
Sergeant David Mullins - Company K, 41st Tennessee Infantry; Died: Jul 31, 1864.
1st Lieutenant James Y. Norman - Company K, 41st Tennessee Infantry; Died: Jul 31, 1864.
Private Marshall S. Renfroe - Company C, 38th Tennessee Infantry; Died: Jul 15, 1864.
Private Robert J. Rhea - Company G, 19th Tennessee Infantry; Age: 26; Born: Dec 18, 1837; Died: Sep 17, 1864.
Captain William T. Richardson - Company E, 11th Tennessee Infantry; Died: Aug 17, 1864.
Private R. S. Shackelton - Company C, 47th Tennessee Infantry; Died: Jul 26, 1864.
Private Nicholas P. Stewart - Company B, 11th Tennessee Infantry; Died: Sep 21, 1864.
Private David Stophel - Company K, 26th Tennessee Infantry; Died: Jul 17, 1864.
Private Henderson Sweet - Company A, 34th Tennessee Infantry; Died: Aug 23, 1864.
Private Charles D. Teaster - Company I, 11th Tennessee Infantry; Died: Aug 13, 1863.
Private G. W. Weems - Company K, 11th Tennessee Infantry; Died: Nov 10, 1863.
Presley D. Williams - Company H, 7th Tennessee Infantry; Died: Aug 21, 1864.
Private George W. Winn - Company I, 2nd Regiment, Tennessee Infantry, Robinson's; Died: Sep 27, 1864.

Sons of Confederate Veterans

Sons of Confederate Veterans

He Died in Place of His Brother

from "It Happened in the Civil War" by Dr. Michael R. Bradley

Today a small, crumbling stone with an almost illegible inscription on the courthouse square at Fayetteville, Tennessee, is the only physical reminder of John R. Massey, a man who gave his life for his brother in the summer of 1864. But his story is one that deserves to be remembered as an act of sacrifice that happened in the Civil War. July 15, 1864, was a bright, pleasant day in the county seat of Lincoln County, Tennessee, and life was about as good as it would get during the latter stages of the war. The gardens were beginning to produce early vegetables, and the monotony of the winter's diet of salted and dried food was being broken. The weather was turning hot, but that was to be expected in mid-southern Tennessee at that time of the year. The Confederate Army of Tennessee had been gone from the area for almost a year following the Tullahoma campaign, but as yet there was no permanent Union garrison in the village, only occasional visits from forage trains or a patrol out on a scout.Fayetteville was in disputed territory. As the traffic along the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad increased in support of Sherman's campaign in North Georgia, an increasing number of Confederate cavalry and guerrilla units moved into the area around Fayetteville, attempting to interdict that traffic. These elusive units made life miserable for the Union garrisons guarding the railroad, so much so that one Union general, Eliazar A. Payne, decided to take drastic action.Suddenly, the morning quiet of the July day in the county seat village of Fayetteville was shattered by gunfire. Union troops under General Payne rode into town, shooting left and right. Soon smoke was rising from numerous points as barns and outbuildings were set afire. Squeals of pigs and squawks of chickens blended with screams of terrified women as hostages were seized and dragged to the courthouse in the middle of the village. From the hostages assembled these four were selected for execution: Thomas Massey, William Pickett, Franklin Burroughs, and Dr. J. W. Miller. Their lives would be spared only if someone in town gave information as to the whereabouts of a camp of Confederate cavalry or guerrillas. Franklin Burroughs had come to the courthouse to purchase a marriage license; he planned to wed the next day. William Pickett had come to town to purchase needed supplies at the general store. Thomas Massey was on his way to work when he was taken by the Union troops. Dr. Miller was not with the original group but was taken hostage later in the day. Years later Dr. Miller's son recalled the terrifying events of that day:
The day of the raid was a bright, sunny day. All nature was clad in its new garment of green. New Irish potatoes and English peas about ready for the table and our first "mess" appeared then. My brother and myself had helped our mother get these vegetables from the garden, she having apprised my father of the fact that "We are going to have Irish potatoes and new peas for dinner." This delighted him, as he was very fond of such things. Dr. Miller, it should be noted, had only recently been released from Camp Chase, Illinois, having been held there as a prisoner of war since the fall of Fort Donelson in February 1862. His son continued:
This pleasure and anticipation was soon swept away, followed with despair, distress, mental anguish and vanishing hope -- my father was arrested, charged with harboring bushwhackers, the same as Massey and the others. The officers who took him in charge and carried him off gave my mother no information as to his fate, despite her pleadings for some knowledge of it, any more than to say, "All damned bushwhacker harborers would be shot and sent to hell." At 11:30 mother received notice that all prisoners taken, charged just as mentioned, would be killed at the same time, 3:00 that evening. General Payne had led his troops a short distance out of town to the top of a nearby hill and halted them there for their midday dinner. The Miller family's cook had proceeded with the preparation for their dinner despite all the confusion, and when Mrs. Miller learned that her husband was still close to town, she prepared a plate of the potatoes and peas and sent his son and a young African-American slave to bring it to him. As his son described it:
We found him sitting under a beech tree, surrounded with six or eight men as a guard. Upon being handed his dinner he courteously invited his guards to eat with him, they refused but urged him to eat quickly since they might move at any moment. While he was eating General Payne rode up, surrounded by his staff, all on fine horses, bright uniforms, sabers dangling. Payne rode very near my father, not more than six feet away and made a statement ever memorable to me, "You G-d d----d grey-eyed bushwhacking sympathizer. I'll have you shot at three o'clock this evening with Thomas Massey and the other damned scoundrels." I grabbed my father by the neck and begged for his life, but the officers forced me away and told me to leave. When my father hugged me to his bosom he said, "Good bye, my little boy, I'll never see you again." No one but a confiding child in a similar condition can realize the awful agony of that moment. Soon after these scenes transpired, General Payne received a visitor, John R. Massey. John had heard of the arrest of his brother, Thomas, and of the impending execution. He had ridden into town from his home west of Fayetteville and had gone to see General Payne to plead for his brother's life. John made two points: His brother Thomas had nothing to do with the Confederate army and had probably been identified as a harborer of bushwhackers by a neighbor who had a grudge against him; and, Thomas was the father of a family of young children who would suffer a good deal, emotionally and financially, by the loss of their father. General Payne was unmoved by these arguments. Then John said, "If you must have Massey blood, take mine." Immediately, Payne agreed, releasing Thomas and arresting John in his place.At three o'clock the Union soldiers fell into ranks with loaded rifles. Burroughs and Pickett were overcome by the situation and collapsed to the ground. John Massey reached down, seized each by the shirt collar and pulled them erect. "Kneel to God, but never to dogs like these!" Ripping open his shirt, Massey then said, "Do you so-called soldiers think you can hit the target at this range?" Gesturing at his heart, he concluded, "Then aim right here." A volley of shots rang out and the three collapsed. Burroughs still moved, so an officer ran him through with his saber. At dark the young woman who was to have married Burroughs on the next day, Miss Molly Goodrich, ventured up the road to where the Yankees had paused, and there found the bodies of Massey, Pickett, and Burroughs lying as they had fallen. Dr. Miller, for reasons unknown, was taken some 9 or 10 miles farther toward Shelbyville and released. That night he was joyously reunited with his family.All these deaths were tragic, and Payne had disobeyed the rules of war in taking hostages and murdering them. Most moving was the death of John R. Massey, a man innocent of any offense against the government of the United States, who volunteered to take the place of his brother in facing execution.

I am their Flag!

By: Dr. Michael R. Bradley
In 1861, when they perceived their rights to be threatened; when those who would change the nature of the government of their fathers were placed in charge; when threatened with change they could not accept the mighty men of valor began to gather. A band of brothers, native to the Southern soil, they pledged themselves to a cause; the cause of defending family, firesides, and faith. Between the desolation of war and their homes they interposed their bodies and they chose me as their symbol. I AM THEIR FLAG.
Their mothers, wives and sweethearts took scissors and thimbles, needles and thread and from silk or cotton or calico - whatever was the best they had - even from the fabric of their wedding dresses, they cut my pieces and stitched my seams. I AM THEIR FLAG
On courthouse lawns, in picnic groves, at train stations across the South the men mustered and the women placed me in their hand. "Fight hard, win if possible, come back if you can, but, above all, maintain your honor. Here is your symbol," they said. I AM THEIR FLAG.
They flocked to the training grounds and the drill fields. They felt the wrenching sadness of leaving home. They endured sickness, loneliness, boredom, bad food and poor quarters. They looked to me for inspiration. I AM THEIR FLAG.
I was at Sumter when they began in jubilation. I was at Big Bethel when the infantry fired its first volley. I smelled the gun smoke along Bull Run in Virginia and at Belmont along the Mississippi. I was in the debacle at Ft. Donelson; I led Jackson up the Valley; for Seven Days I flapped in the turgid air of the James River bottoms as McClelland ran from before Richmond. Sidney Johnston died for me at Shiloh as would thousands of others whose graves are marked Sine Nomine, "without a name," unknown. I AM THEIR FLAG.
With ammunition gone they defended me along the railroad bed at Manassas by throwing rocks. I saw the fields run red with blood at Sharpsburg. Brave men carried me across Doctor’s Creek at Perryville. I saw the Blue bodies cover Marye’s Heights at Fredericksburg and the Gray ones fall like leaves in the Round Forest at Stones River. I AM THEIR FLAG!
I was a shroud for the body of Stonewall after Chancellorsville. Men ate rats and mule meat to keep me flying over Vicksburg. I tramped across the wheat field with Kemper and Armistead and Garnett at Gettysburg. I know the thrill of victory, the misery of defeat, the bloody cost of both. I AM THEIR FLAG!
When Longstreet broke the line at Chickamauga I was in the lead. I was the last off Lookout Mountain. Men died to rescue me at Missionary Ridge. I was singed by the wildfire that burned to death the wounded in the Wilderness. I was shot to tatters in the Bloody Angle at Spotsylvania. I was in it all from Dalton to Peachtree Creek and no worse place did I ever see than Kennesaw and New Hope Church. They planted me over the trenches at Petersburg and there I stayed for many long months. I AM THEIR FLAG.
I was rolled in blood at Franklin; I was stiff with ice at Nashville. Many good men bade me farewell at Saylor’s Creek. When the end came at Appomattox, when the last Johnny Reb left Durham Station many of them carried fragments of my fabric hidden on their bodies. I AM THEIR FLAG!
In the hard years of so-called "Reconstruction;" in the difficulty and despair of years that slowly passed, the veterans, their wives and sons and daughters, they loved me. They kept alive the tales of valor and the legends of bravery. They passed them on to the grandchildren and they to their children and so they were passed to you. I AM THEIR FLAG!
I have shrouded the bodies of heroes, I have been laid with the blood of martyrs, I am enshrined in the hearts of millions, living and dead. Salute me with affection and reverence. Keep undying devotion in your hearts.

Saturday, July 26, 2008

Proper Southern Manners

Make no mistake about it, manners matter in Dixie! Good manners make life more pleasant for everyone. Good manners are what make Southerners different from those who aren't from here. You cannot take good manners too seriously in the South.
The Fundamentals of Good Manners
These five fundamentals should set you in good stead. Good manners are extended to everybody, regardless of whether you know them, on which side of town they live, or whether they tithe.
Be Humble: Others first, yourself last. Self-denial and deference to others ("After you") are the cornerstone of good manners, acting selfish or uppity is not. This commandment is indisputably rooted in the Bible Belt theology ("the first shall be last, and the last shall be first").
Be Courteous: Remember the Golden Rule. Go out of your way to be helpful and kind to everyone you encounter.
Behave Yourself: Don't be uncouth, rude, brash, loud, coarse, or cause a commotion in public. Only trashy types do such things.....and obviously this is because they weren't raised to know better.
Be Friendly: Put your friendliest foot forward, whether you've been properly introduced or don't know the person from a hole in the ground. Be sociable and neighborly, just like you learned in Sunday School ("Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself").
Be Modest: Never be highfalutin'. Practice modesty in all situations. "Why, shucks, I guess I was in the right place at the right time" would work just fine upon learning that you had won the Pulitzer Prize. "Of course I won it, I deserve to" would absolutely categorize you as too big for your britches.
Common Courtesies in Dixie
Say "please" without fail. Please, always say "please" when you make a requet, no matter how trivial or important.
Always ask, never tell. The only way to make a request is to ask for it, directives are much too surly. "Would you please carry me up the road a piece?" is correct. "Give me a ride to the market" is most assuredly not.
Say "Thank you" without fail. Upon being granted your request--be it a personal favor or impersonal transaction--always look the other party in the eye, give them a pleasing smile, and cheerily say, "Thank you". To show them you're really grateful, dress it up with "Thank you kindly," "Thanks a whole lot," "Preciate it". If your request is denied, say "Well, thank you anyway." Using your best turn-the-other-cheek manner.
Say "ma'am" and "sir" without fail. If any adult your senior addresses you (or vice versa), automatically attach the appropriate title to your response ("Yes ma'am, "I reckon so, Sir", "Pardon me ma'am"). Neglecting this rule is apt to be interpreted as arrogance or insolence or just plain bad upbringing.
Always refer to those of the female gender as Ladies. The descriptive woman is usually reserved in Dixie for females of questionable respect. If you are a gentleman, then treat all ladies with courtness, deference, and respect you'd accord members of the royal family since, in the South, ladies occupy such status. This is an immutable rule of order in Dixie, no matter what may be happening elsewhere on this planet.
Chivalry may not be well appreciated outside the South today, but you can be sure that around home territory a true gentleman will so honor a lady:
Hold the door open for all members of the fairer sex, regardless of their social station.
Stand when a lady enters or leaves a room.
Walk on the streetside of a side-walk, when accompanying a lady.
Order for both of you when at a restaurant (excluding business meals).
Always call his mother "Mamma" or "mutha" or "Mrs. -------"-never by her first name, no matter what his age.
My Daddy Said
As my daddy told me many years ago, "Good manners do not cost you anything to exercise, but the lack of them may cost you dearly further down the road".
My daddy also told me "Treat all ladies as ladies, no matter what you have heard and continue to do so until she proves to you that she is not a lady".
He also said " A man's word is his bond and that you come into this world with only your name and will leave this world the same and how you are remembered is how you kept the honor of your name".
The last quote that I will make of my daddy's is "The manners that your children exhibit to you and the public are a direct reflection of you".
Political correctness is a cop-out to explain away the failures of our leaders, clergy, teachers, and most of all PARENTS. Morals and Manners are never out of style and are a prerequlsite of all Southern Ladies and Gentlemen!
Thomas C. Cardwell
"The Fundementals of Good Manners", "Proper Southern Manners", and "Common Courtesies in Dixie", are from the book, Having It Ya'll, 1993 by Ann Barrett Batson, published by Rutledge Hill Press.

Southern Manners

Etiquette is something that has traditionally been very important in the South. The South is world famous for its "Southern Hospitality." Manners are important to Southerners, no matter what status in life one holds. While manners seem to be slipping in our modern society, there is still a place for manners, and good manners can help anyone move between different social classes and assist in advancing one's career. Unfortunately, there is little out there to assist in passing on good manners to future generations. In this section we offer a link to a site that offers some tips on Southern manners, and a copy of a handbook created from several sources that can help maintain good manners, and in turn preserve civil society.
A Handbook
Southern Manners
Many readers of this booklet have witnessed, over the last three or four decades, a precipitous decline in not only the practice of good manners, but also the comprehension of the need for good manners. Many people bemoan the ever-increasing anger and violence of our Socialist-afflicted society, and wonder aloud at the causes and cures for such widespread discontent in a nation greatly blessed in natural resources. It behooves us all to recognize the importance that good manners play in the satisfaction and enjoyment we all receive from the society in which we live.
While concern for our conduct toward others is down, the assertion of our Constitutional rights is up. There is also a serious increase in negative political ads and the use of vulgar language. We do business with little thought for others. What happened to the time when a man’s word was his bond and you could do business on a handshake? Some say civility is in a permanent state of change. On the contrary, the basics stay the same indefinitely, and have since the earliest times of recorded history.
This is no argument for a return to a less advanced technology, but rather a simple recognition of the many stresses present-day humans have to endure that lead to poor attitudes and shortened tempers. Indeed, a far more significant stress on interpersonal relationships is the increase in population in this and most countries. In the past, people sometimes went a long time without seeing other humans, or were restricted to interacting with only a very few persons. This scarcity of societal contact inherently increases the value of other persons and inclines individuals towards appreciating others.
In stark contrast to this is the all too frequent frustration of having other people crowding our lives on the highways as we drive, on lakes as we boat or sail, on city sidewalks, in restaurants and any number of other public places. This crowding from so many people (especially in cities) causes us to appreciate each other much less, and consequently to relate to people in a less kind fashion. It is these stresses, along with the general decline in societal morals that has led to such things as “road rage” where rudeness goes past the boundaries of crudity into the realm of unlawful acts.
Therefore, we must first recognize the raw logic that demands the exercise of common courtesy, and then move on to the art form that makes it more than a perfunctory exercise. Good manners are an essential ingredient in a healthy society because they smooth relations with the people with whom we interact and prevent a host of problems. More than this, good manners make life more pleasant and enjoyable. Such courtesies actually honor God by giving respect to that part of His universe that was created in His image: humans. When good manners are practiced sincerely, the respect that flows outward creates self-respect, something the Socialists and others of their kind try to generate through false and demeaning government-sponsored programs and clich├ęs.
Good manners have been a concern of the South and part of our culture since the earliest times in America. In the South, hospitality has always been a universal virtue. The sharing of food, bed and other amenities, regardless of one’s financial status, has been second nature to Southerners. Southerners have been known to offer help and ask for nothing in return, even turning down offers of payment for their help.
Concerning manners, every action done in the presence of company ought to be done with some sign of respect for those that are present. The way people behave in polite society is related to how they order their society. In determining our actions, we would do well to consider the words of Robert E. Lee, whom Winston Churchill once described as the greatest example of manhood to ever come from America. Lee said, “I am opposed to the theory of doing wrong that good may come of it. I hold to the belief that you must act right whatever the consequences.”
Values govern our behavior, and principles govern the consequences of our behavior. If our values are out of alignment with enduring principles, we will suffer the negative consequences. It is our duty to teach, promote and expect good manners from family, friends, and all others. Otherwise, we will continue down a path that will lead eventually to anarchy.
It is the hope of all the people who contributed to this booklet that readers will explore the principles and recommendations in this booklet and then weave them into their lifestyle. This will improve the personal, social and cultural quality of your own life and the quality of the lives of the people with whom you interact.
Note: Individuals are freely given the right to make hard copies of this booklet for distribution so long as this booklet is given away freely. No money, services, remuneration or other valuable consideration should ever be taken in exchange for this booklet. Its very purpose is to produce good effect, which will begin by the simple act of giving this material away.
The Essence of Good Manners
The great underlying principle that guides all good manners is summed up most efficiently and exquisitely by Jesus Christ when He said, “So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, …” (Matthew 7:12, NIV)
In this simple statement you have the yardstick by which any situation is best measured. Put in common, modern parlance, the same thing can be said this way, “If you would not want it done to you, then do not do it to others because they would not like it for the same reasons you would not like it.” No matter what the circumstance in which you find yourself, you can always apply the principle found in Matthew 7:12 to make a good decision concerning others.
The Apostle Paul amplifies this basic principle of good manners further when he said, “Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit, but in humility consider others better than yourselves.” (Philippians 2:3, NIV)
Admittedly, it is very difficult to consider others “better than” ourselves because of human pride and the fear of being taken advantage of. But false pride is at the root of bad manners, and this is the very best way to attack that problem. And yes, some people will take advantage of your generosity, but will you really give up anything more than false pride anyway?
Good manners do not ask you to give up life, limb, personal health or significant amounts of money. Instead, it calls for civility and respect for others expressed in word and deed. There is a balance to all things. It might be a courtesy to give a ride to a stranger hitch hiking on the side of the road, but is this wise in today’s world? In the old South one could do such things with scant fear, but today …? No longer can it be said, “I rely on the help of strangers.”
In your consideration of those who do not return your good manners, remember this: you can sink to their level and become like them, or you can maintain your self-respect by doing what you know is right. Forgive their transgressions because most of the wrongs are emotional stings to the pride or, very slight physical intrusions. Such things can be overlooked, and in doing so you can help craft in yourself one of the greatest art forms of all: good manners.
The word “ticket” is French. In the days of kings and queens, in France you had to have a ticket to enter the palace for any court function. This ticket (or invitation) meant that you knew hot to act properly.
Why is it important to have good manners? All people like to be treated with kindness, courtesy and respect. Good manners are the rules that developed out of the need for one person to treat another person in a respectful, friendly and courteous manner. Children, like adults, like to feel important. Good manners cause adults to welcome your presence and treat you well. Your popularity with others will increase. People like to be friends with other people who have good manners.
Do not confuse good manners with conduct for special occasions such church, parties, weddings, etc. Good manners are something you do every place and every day. Our friendships and relationships are based on how we treat others on a daily basis.
Good Manners at Arm’s Length
The most personal interaction we commonly have with others is face-to-face contact. The innate intimacy of this social encounter involves a variety of ways in which we can express ourselves for good or ill.
Greetings are the first aspect of a face-to-face contact. It should start with a smile that is appropriate for the relationship. Such a smile can come from more than just the mouth. A smile can be seen in the eyes. After this, verbal greetings are often in order, and are based on how well you know each other.
Physical contact is another matter. Traditionally, men shake hands and women hug. More recently these boundaries have blurred. Many people find comfort in maintaining these traditional contacts, and they are recommended here.
The original reason for shaking hands was to show that one did not have a weapon in hand, ready to strike. On a more subtle level, men test the strength of the other with a firm handshake. Whenever a man gives a weak or limp handshake, others, women included, tend to immediately disrespect that person. Refusal to offer one’s hand, or to accept the handshake of the other, shows contempt for that person, and should not be done unless there are very good reasons. When one refuses to shake another’s hand, it can be perceived as an insult.
Eye contact that is balanced in its duration can communicate interest in what the other person is saying. If the eye contact is too long (staring) or too intense it can be rude and might communicate wrongful motives. Eye avoidance generally communicates no interest at all and shows disrespect for the other. If time constraints require you to leave, there are tactful ways of getting this idea across. If you are not interested in what they are saying, practice your patience, listen a while, find a good breaking point and excuse yourself.
It is important to be careful not to let one’s eyes wander where they should not go. Males are particularly prone to this breech of etiquette, and are well advised to keep their vision above the neckline when communicating with the opposite sex. The most offensive variation on this theme is the practice of some males either gawking, or turning their heads to stare at a woman when she passes by. This is a complete lack of self respect, and respect for the woman. A gentleman never does this. The only exception to any of this paragraph is in reference ton one’s spouse.
Personal space, the distance between people as they interact, is generally set by their culture and is different throughout the world. Persons from South America are more comfortable at closer distances than persons from North America. It is humorous to watch a North American continually move backwards as a South American continually moves forward as each tries to maintain their ideal of the proper personal distance.
However, in the absence of such cultural differences, getting too close to others in a face-to-face situation can be rude or threatening. Try to recognize when you are crowding others as “getting in someone’s face” is often used as an intimidation technique. The proper distance will save you the embarrassment of worrying about offending another with your breath, or accidentally spraying the other person. When in conversation with a stranger, more than arms length is reasonable when one considers the level of crime in our present day world.
Interrupting is generally considered rude when it cuts off another person’s speech, or train of thought. Exceptions to this are in situations where words and thoughts are flowing freely and one can feel that persons jumping in and out of the conversation is part of the character of that particular setting. Show respect for the thoughts, speech and feelings for the other persons. After all, are you really sure you know the totality of what they have to say?
Hand gestures, as a part of face-to-face communication, has not generally been a problem in the past. The worst aspect of this, historically, was simply too much of it so that it was a meaningless distraction. However, in more recent years some individuals have adopted a style of personal communication that includes shoving their hands close to your face. This would have been considered provocation for a physical confrontation in the past, and for some people today still is a “fight starter.” Do not “get in someone’s face” with your hands. After all, what is the purpose of it anyway? Does it have any real meaning other than a poor attempt to establish dominance?
Entering a room calls for males of all ages to remove their hats upon crossing the threshold of a house or other building. This practice goes back to ancient times, and is referred to in Scripture in reference to men having their head uncovered in Church. This same practice does not apply to women. Instead, whenever a woman enters a room where men are seated, it is customary for the men to stand until she is seated. This shows respect and is generally applied to adult females.
In today’s world this concept is completely foreign to those who advocate and practice treating women as chattel. Some currently published songs call for the unprovoked physical and emotional abuse of women along with other segments of society. Part of the reason for their wretched attitude towards women is due to the fact that they would not know a lady of they met one. Having never observed the excellence of character and spirit of a true lady, they imagine women as weaker members of our species simply to be used for personal gratification.
Part of the reason for this attitude is the simple fact that the art of being a lady has been greatly lost during the past generation. Although this statement will incur the ire of some women, a vast majority will no doubt agree that the art of being a lady and the art of being a gentleman is nearly comatose. It therefore behooves all of us (men and women) to do our utmost to re-invigorate these dying arts.
1. Legs together, or legs crossed at ankles, or legs crossed at knees, or legs together – leaning at angle.
Bend over to pick up. Stoop.
Sit with legs apart.
One leg crossed over knee of other leg.
Straddle a chair.
1. Legs slightly apart, or one leg crossed above the knee of other leg, or legs crossed at knees.
2. Men/boys may bend over to pick up things.
Spread legs out from under the table or out in air.
Straddle a chair.
1. Sit with back against back of chair, bench, etc.
2. Sit up straight and tall.
3. Do not slouch.
Arms of chairs – not for sitting or propping feet, but an armrest.
Rounds of chairs – to steady and reinforce legs & chair frame. Feet should stay on the floor. Legs of chairs – for support and balancing, and it takes 4 legs not 2.
How to Address Others
An important part of manners is how to address people. This partly depends on whether the person addressed is a man, woman, older, younger, boss or subordinate. In today’s world, there is a move toward everyone being on a first name basis. While this may make things more “friendly,” it also tends to make people forget who is the boss and people seem to lose respect for those who have earned it through hard work or by the simple fact of their age.
A friend of mine, who used to work for my father, referred to my father by his title, “Dr. -------,” while at work, but away from work he referred to him by his first name. Rare are the individuals who can separate their personal relationship from their professional relationship. Respect begets respect, and studies show that regardless of who you are and where you come from, everyone wants to be treated with respect.
When addressing a subordinate or younger person outside of work it is best to use their sir-name (last name), but it is okay to use their first name if you are familiar with the individual. When addressing a superior or older person always use their sir-name. For peers it is okay to use first names, but familiarity can break down the barriers that support proper conduct in professional and personal life.
This move to familiarity is especially confusing for children and young adults who are not yet adept at distinguishing what is proper. In the past, children called their friends’ parents by Mr. or Mrs. (Sir-name). It has now become common practice for young people to use first names or at the most formal, Mr. or Mrs. (First-name). This practice creates a blurring of the lines of authority and a loss of respect. Adults wanting to be a child’s friend instead of their authority figure or role model has wreaked havoc on the fabric of our society.
Rules of Introductions
When you introduce a friend to a friend, always say the girl’s name first.
When introducing a friend to an adult, always say the adult’s name first.
Always stand when you are being introduced to someone.
Always look at the person’s eyes, smile, and say something simple and pleasant, such as, “Hello, it’s good to meet you.” You may want to repeat the person’s name to help remember it.
Men and boys should remove their hat when being introduced. Use your right hand for handshaking and use a firm grip.
Courtesy Words and Actions
Common words of courtesy can take an individual a long ways these days since so few practice them. Some of the common words and actions you will see in the South are:
- Say, “Yes sir,” “No sir,” or “Yes ma’am,” “No ma'am.”
- Always say, “Please,” “May I,” “Thank You,” “You’re Welcome,” “Excuse Me,” “Pardon Me.”
- A man wearing a hat should take it off when indoors. Coaches Paul “Bear” Bryant and Bum Phillips were known for not wearing their hats in enclosed stadiums such as the Superdome in New Orleans.
- A hat should also be removed (by men) during the national anthem, the raising of the flag, funeral processions, and prayer. This hat doffing can also be done at the gentleman’s discretion for any event for which he wants to show respect.
- If you are wearing a hat, tip it when a lady walks by.
- Acknowledge others when walking by with a smile, a nod or “hello.”
- Allow someone with only one to three items ahead of you at the grocery store when you have a full basket. (Don’t be in such a rush, things go slower in the South) When someone else is speaking, don’t interrupt. Wait until they are done speaking, or if it is an urgent matter, say, “Excuse me, but …”
Maintaining Your Honor and Integrity
Keep your word – don’t tell someone you will do something and not do it – especially your family. A Southern Gentleman will understand the moral absolutes that define him, his culture and society. The originating source for these absolutes is The Holy Bible, God’s unerring word. Don’t lie, cheat or steal. Don’t get involved in anything that isn’t moral, honest, ethical or legal.
Family is important to Southerners probably more so than to others living in these united states. Our tradition is such that we tend to be “clannish.” Stand by your family. The bonds you have with family are such that no matter what, you will always have them. As a dependent living with your parents, you should always defer to their authority. Once on your own, you are the boss, but you should still show respect for your parents and all they have done to raise you. Once married, you, your spouse and any children you have are your immediate family. Parents and siblings become extended family. Priorities should be immediate family and then extended family. If you put a sibling or your mother or father before you spouse, don’t expect the marriage to last. Having you priorities out of order is not honorable and having a failed marriage due to misplaced priorities is definitely not honorable.
On Being a Gentleman
There are a number of things that go into being a Gentleman. Some of those things are addressed in other parts of this book, but it all must come together to be effective in reaching the status of “Gentleman.” The term “Gentleman” is thrown around too casually these days. A Gentleman combines the skills of manners, conversation, conduct and personal integrity all rolled into a seamless package.
Gentlemen will open doors for ladies, offer their seat to them, stand when a woman enters the room and offer their arm when going up or down steps. A Gentleman will never use foul language in front of women and children, or discuss improper topics in front of them. It is sad to say this, but it is necessary today to explain what some of those topics might be.
Examples of areas to NOT discuss in front of women and children include:
-Sexually suggestive issues or jokes
-Personal hygiene issues of a nature that are definitely private (talking about brushing your teeth is one thing, but bodily functions such as flatulence and other bowel movements are off limits).
-Gossip in general should be avoided as it is never good to spread this kind of information and it sets a poor example for children.
Avoiding these areas is a good start to conducting yourself in a manner that befits a Gentleman. Always present a positive attitude and be willing to offer assistance to others. In offering assistance, be sure it is for ethical, honorable activities.
Robert E. Lee
Probably the finest example of manhood we have is Robert E. Lee.
Lee’s description of what a gentleman should be was Lee’s description of what a leader should be. He summarized the goal when he wrote: “The forbearing use of power does not only form the touchstone, but the manner in which an individual enjoys certain advantages over others is the test of a true gentleman.”
The power which the strong have over the weak, the magistrate over the unlettered, the experienced over the confiding, even the clever over the silly – the forbearing or inoffensive use of all this power or authority, or the total absence of it when the case admits it, will show the gentleman in plain light. The gentleman does not needlessly or unnecessarily remind an offender of a wrong he may have committed against him. He can not only forgive, he can forget; and he strives for that nobleness of self and mildness of character which impart sufficient strength to let the past be the past. A true gentleman of honor feels humbled himself when he cannot help humbling others.
On Being a Lady
“What is a Lady”
by Varina Jefferson Davis
(Note: While the definition of a lady provided here may be a little dated, the basic concepts never go out of style. Varina Davis’ recommendations here are as sound and applicable today as they were in the 19th century.)
A lady is simply someone who cares about herself and others. She sees that her garments are clean and neatly pressed, her shoes are polished, and every button is in place. She is neat and tidy even at the breakfast table and wishes to appear well to her own family. She keeps her hair clean and well-groomed and never puts her hand to her hair to re-arrange it or search for loose pins while others can see.
A lady does not monopolize the conversation. She does not talk of herself and her own affairs but listens with well-simulated interest to a story that bores her. This is the mark of good breeding. She does not sit apart with one or two friends but makes the gentle effort to assure a good time for all with pleasant conversation. A lady does not say or do anything that will upset those around her or make them uncomfortable.
A lady does not let any man kiss her or put his arm around her unless she is engaged to be married to him, and even then she should be a little stingy with her favors.
A lady, when she brushes off her hat, does not forget to brush away the cobwebs…in her brain. She does not conclude that every man who has said something pleasant to her has fallen in love with her.
A lady is possessed of refinement, which prevents her from all fidgeting, from playing with her handkerchief, her umbrella, her purse, or whatever may be in her hands. When she sits down she remains quietly, her hands resting easily without movement and her whole figure is filled with repose. She is calm, composed, self-controlled at all times, yet there are no airs about her. These qualities are what keep her from talking and laughing loudly, and they prevent her from hurting the feelings of anyone.
A lady does not grow weary in well-doing but encourages herself by trying to live up to her ideal of a woman. Adapted by Martha Clippinger
Table Manners
Proper conduct at the dinner table is becoming a lost art. The following is a list of things everyone should consider when sitting down to eat.
Conduct at the dining Table
Before coming to the table, be clean, neat, appropriately dressed (wearing a shirt and hair combed) and wash & dry your hands. Be on time.
Your napkin should be placed in your lap, folded halfway.
The first person to take a bite of food should be the person who prepared the meal.
Sit up straight with both feet on the floor.
Never rest your arms/elbows on the table.
Eat with one hand and rest the other in your lap.
Men and boys can help women be seated (pull out their chair).
Talk only of pleasant things at the table, and don’t interrupt another person.
Don’t talk with food in your mouth.
Never say you don’t like something that is being served. Take a small helping and eat it out of respect for the cook and host. You don’t have to have seconds.
Food is passed to the right.
Do not overload your plate.
Chew with your mouth closed.
When serving yourself, be sure and use the serving utensil, not you own utensils.
When eating soup, spoon away from yourself.
Never reach for food, say, “Would you please pass the _____.”
Before talking or drinking, be sure you do not have food in your mouth.
Never spit food out if it is too hot. Drink water to cool off the food.
Use your napkin to clean you mouth and hands before getting up from the table.
If you must sneeze at the table, use your napkin and sneeze downward and away from others and your plate.
You may leave to table when everyone is finished. Children may ask to be excused early if adults wish to stay and talk. Children should address whoever prepared the meal and say, “I enjoyed my meal, may I be excused?”
When finished, place napkin to the left side of your plate, or if plate has been removed where plate was.
When leaving the table, be sure to push your chair under the table.
Men – Remove hat or cap at table.
Restaurant – If you drop a utensil, do not pick it up. The waiter will bring you another one.
Cutting Meat
1. Only cut two to three pieces at a time.
2. When finished cutting, lay the knife on the plate and use your fork for eating.
Bread and Butter
If the table includes a butter plate, bread and butter are placed on this plate.
Never eat bread when you have an eating utensil in either hand.
When not in use, the butter knife remains on the butter plate.
Telephone Manners
It is customary to give a greeting when answering the telephone. In the United States that greeting is often the word “Hello.” In Australia it is often the word “Cheers.” Whatever greeting you choose to use, please say it politely.
If the call is unwelcome, such as a telemarketer, there is no need to be rude or abusive, even if it is the third such call of the evening. Instead, simply and quietly tell them to take your name off of their calling list. If the call is abusive or threatening, it is no longer strictly a question of manners. Hang up and call the proper authorities. There is no social requirement to speak in response.
While talking to another person on the telephone, or for that matter a two-way radio, it is very rude to be audibly doing something else, such as rattling pots and pans. (Granted, some people have established a relationship where this is not rude. In such circumstances it is a matter of free and mutual agreement.) If you are going to talk to someone, give them your attention. And do not audibly eat food while on the telephone as the smacking of the mouth is not pleasant to hear. And of course, do not interrupt.
Building a Friendly Neighborhood
Neighbors are something we don’t ever want to take for granted. In the South, we traditionally have looked after our own. That is why we don’t need all this big government interference. Traditional Southerners are independent and offer Christian brotherly assistance to their neighbors. Some things to keep in mind:
- Welcome new neighbors with a plant or dessert. At least go over and meet them when they move in.
- Periodically check on sick or elderly neighbors.
- Offer guests in your home something to drink. Don’t keep insisting, offer once and if they decline then they can ask if they change their mind later. If someone has had surgery, a new baby or a death in the family, organize the neighbors to all take turns fixing dinner for the affected family (one night per home) for one week (at least).
Automobiles and Other Private Transportation
At the beginning of the country, most persons traveled by foot, and did not have to worry about the high-speed problems that mechanized travel brings us today. Granted, horses and wagons did approximate this problem, but not greatly. Indeed, it was possible for persons to be injured or even killed in a horse and buggy accident, but there was scant chance of dying in the twisted flaming wreckage of a high velocity accident.
Because of this simple fact, good manners take on more of life-and-death significance since poor manners can lead directly to deadly vehicle accidents. The evidence of this is seen daily in the news media for more than just cars and trucks, but for boats and airplanes as well.
If everyone practiced “The Golden Rule” as stated in Matthew 7:12 then a large number of vehicle accidents could be avoided. This would save countless lives, prevent innumerable injuries, and avoid millions of dollars in property damage. Good manners are, at a minimum, logical.
Automobiles are a prime example. If a person needs to change lanes and if it is safe to let them into your lane, do so. To not permit this is more than rude, it could lead to a dangerous situation for you and others. Try to consider the reasonable needs of others on the road, and help them.
It should go without saying that it is bad manners to use vulgar hand gestures, etc if someone renders you a discourtesy. Even if you truly believe they have earned it, do not do it. Do not lower yourself to their level, and do not provoke a fool to violence. There is no one on the road worth going to the hospital for, and certainly no stranger is worth going to jail for. Forgive them and simply get away from them in a safe manner.
Finally, pay attention to driving your vehicle. Do not hold others up or create a dangerous situation because you are engaged in some other, non-essential activity, including talking on the telephone, putting on make-up, shaving, reading or operating your music system. Lives are at stake, not to mention legal liabilities if you cause an accident. All of this applies to motorboats and airplanes as well. Although not as widely considered, both of these modes of conveyance have “rules of the road” that are based on good manners. It does not take much imagination to figure out how to be courteous to others, and a lot of it has to do with distance and wake.
Public Transportation
Whenever people are getting off a train car, bus or other mode of public transportation, let the disembarking people get off first before trying to get on. It is illogical to try to get on before they leave simply because you would have to push them aside (usually) to get on, and that is terribly rude. Instead, stand to one side and permit them to get off. Then you get on.
Think about what it means to try to shoulder your way on prior to them getting off. It is a public statement of selfishness that you would be so pushy just to try to get a better seat.
A gentleman may offer to give his seat to a lady, and she may politely decline of she wishes.
Do not play sound devices such as radios, etc such that it disturbs others. No matter what type of music you like, you can be sure there is someone else who does not like it. Non-musical material, such as lectures, etc. can be very distracting to others who are trying to read.
Open food and/or drink can be very inappropriate as well for several reasons. Spills on seats or on the floor can sometimes get on other people’s clothing, and the smell of food is a big distraction for some. Do not leave trash on public vehicles, and most certainly do not vandalize them in any fashion, including graffiti.
It should be completely unnecessary to mention anything about the subject of wastes in the context of not offending others, but as the 20th Century has wound down, public displays of the basest sort have become commonplace. Miscreants of every stripe continue to make a public display of casting off their wastes – from fingernail clippings to worse – despite a host of witnesses or persons who may be immediately offended.
Do not clip your fingernails in public and then discard the clippings on the floor. Medical science has demonstrated that human fingers, and in particular the underside of human fingernails, to be absolutely nasty. Therefore, when you cut your fingernails or toenails, dispose of the clippings in a trashcan. And do it at home.
It is sad that this should have to be addressed, but such is the decline of manners today that it cannot be ignored. Flatulence should never be detected by another, be either sound or smell. If you have a “gas problem,” then you should remove yourself to the restroom; after all that is why these rooms were built. Obviously, if one is in the woods, in one’s home or otherwise unable to affect others by this activity, then what you do in private is your business.
Facial tissues were invented largely for the polite and hygienic removal of nasal wastes. Use them. Do not go “digging for gold” in public as this effectively puts you on the same level as zoo animals. And most assuredly do not dispose of such wastes such that others might actually come into physical contact with them.
When coughing, cover your mouth. When sneezing, make every effort not to spray others or their property.
Some people are so devoid of basic concepts of decency that they see nothing wrong with relieving themselves in public places. One would think that everyone that has reached adulthood in this country would know that such behavior is grossly unacceptable. It is a basic fact of nature that all people have to urinate, but we do not have to put on public demonstrations of those facts.
To put it bluntly, do not urinate in public outside of a restroom. This is particularly true of swimming pools and other public swimming areas. In a world where we understand as much as we do about communicable diseases, it is more than just a matter of manners. It could affect someone’s health. To summarize, do not release wastes into your environment in such a way that even one other person might conceivably come into physical or sensory contact with it.

Thursday, July 24, 2008

American Minute for July 24th:

Tennessee's Constitutional Convention composed its State Constitution in 1796. The U.S. Congress accepted it and President George Washington signed the bill admitting Tennessee as the 16th State on June 1, 1796. The Tennessee Constitution, Article XI, Section III, stated: "All men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences." Though Article XI, Section IV, stated: "No religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under this State," Article VIII, Section II, stated: "No person who denies the being of God, or a future state of rewards and punishments, shall hold any office in the civil department of this State." After the Civil War, Tennessee was the first State readmitted to the Union on JULY 24, 1866. President Andrew Johnson issued a Proclamation of Amnesty and Pardon to former Confederates on September 7, 1867: "Every person who shall seek to avail himself of this proclamation shall take the following oath...'I do solemnly swear, in the presence of Almighty God, that I will henceforth faithfully support...the Constitution of the United States...So help me God.'"

Sunday, July 20, 2008

United Confederate Veterans Procession, Little Rock, AR 1911

Confederate hero was slave, Memorial honors his role in Civil War, including as aide to Lee.

Mary Elizabeth Clyburn Hooks, granddaughter of Wary Clyburn, places a rose on his grave at Friday's ceremony. A memorial was held in Monroe at Hillcrest Cemetery to honor Clyburn, a former slave who was a Confederate hero in the Civil War. It has taken years for his role to come to light.

Ruth Young, granddaughter of Wary Clyburn, receives the Confederate flag from a Civil War re-enactor at a ceremony Friday honoring Clyburn, who was a slave and a Civil War hero. The ceremony was held at Hillcrest Cemetery in Monroe.

Family members hold a photo of Wary Clyburn

By Cliff Harrington

MONROE --Information about Wary Clyburn had been tucked away for years in old records and the memory of his daughter, Mattie Rice.
There were records that showed he had been approved to receive a pension in 1926 after letters confirmed he was a Civil War veteran. And there are the memories Mattie Clyburn Rice has from conversations with her father.
Wary Clyburn was a slave.
On Friday, he was honored by the city of Monroe and Sons of Confederate Veterans as an African American Confederate hero. A diverse crowd of around 200 attended.
Wary was owned by Frank Clyburn, a plantation owner in Lancaster County, S.C. He went on to serve in the Civil War as a bodyguard for Thomas Clyburn, son of Frank, and later was a special aide to Gen. Robert E. Lee, documents show.
Wary died when his daughter, Mattie, was 8.
She was born in 1922. Her father was born about 1841 and died in 1930, according to records cited by Earl Ijames, a curator of the N.C. Museum of History.
Various documents spell Wary's name several ways: Werry, Weary and Wary. Rice says the correct spelling is Wary.
She was unable to attend Friday's memorial ceremony, even though she had worked for years to gather details about her father. Rice became sick and was taken to a local hospital early Friday.
The ceremony answered many questions.
In a statement Friday, Ijames said Thomas Clyburn joined the Confederate army at age 19. Wary then ran away from the plantation and went to join the Confederate Army with Thomas. Many believed the two had become friends during boyhood.
Rice this week recalled conversations with her father.
“We talked a lot about the war,” she said. “… He told me he just went to war with this fella he grew up with. He said his family wasn't treated like the other slaves around there.”
Ijames told the family that on two occasions Wary Clyburn carried Thomas away from deadly fighting and to safety.
“Here's a legacy that has endured more than 140 years, through his youngest child and her increase,” Ijames said. “She never wavered in the stories her father told her.
Among the large group of descendants at Friday's ceremony were four of Wary Clyburn's grandchildren: Mary Elizabeth Clyburn Hooks, Countee Hall, Valerie Frazier and Ruth Young. Young received an honorary flag given by the Sons of Confederate Veterans.
A new marker now stands at Wary Clyburn's grave in Monroe's Hillcrest Cemetery, with his name and military information for public viewing.
As a final part of the ceremony, his descendants filed past his resting place. Each dropped a rose on the grave to honor their patriarch.
The youngest was 2-year-old Kai Bryant – Wary's great-great granddaughter.

Saturday, July 19, 2008

In Defense of Michael R. Bradley, Ph.D.

Richard G. Williams, Jr.
"From Virginia sprung the Southern Mind, a mind which favoured the local community, Burkean conservatism, the folkways of ancestors, an unwavering orthodox Christian faith." ~ Alphonse Vinh
I've recently read several attacks on the work of Dr. Michael R. Bradley, who wrote a piece in a recent issue of North and South Magazine. The article was titled "In the Crosshairs" and focused on the Union army's treatment of Southern civilians during the Civil War. Personally, I found the article well-written, well-researched, interesting, and a needed reminder that the Union army was not as virtuous as many of the South's detractors would like for all of us to believe. Most of the criticism is coming from the predictable quarters, but the ones I've read have failed to mention (Intentionally?) Bradley's *credentials and other work. Bradley received a master's degree and a Ph.D. in history from Vanderbilt University and taught American history for 36 years at Motlow State Community College in Tennessee. He's written a number of books on the South and the Civil War; which is part of the reason for this post.

I was not familiar with Bradley's work or credentials until I recently picked up a complimentary copy of a book that was sent to me by the Civil War Preservation Trust last year when I renewed my membership. The book was authored by Bradley and is titled, It Happened in the Civil War. It is a collection of stories written in a popular style. The book was published for the CWPT, bears their name, and notes that it is a "Battlefield Preservation Edition." I assume this edition was used for fund raising and membership drives at one time.

I write all of this in defense of Bradley. It seems that any time someone writes anything that fails to portray the South and Southerners in the worst possible light--and the North and Northerners in the best possible light--there is a coordinated effort to discredit and impugn them, even referring to such individuals as "dangerous" and/or not worth reading. I know this from personal experience and could cite dozens of other examples. Failing to regurgitate the establishment's official story line (even when there exists reams of evidence to the contrary) and follow the approved template will bring down the scorn of the academic elites. It's really getting kind of boring and oh so predictable.

Typically, these "critiques" are little more than politically motivated ad hominem attacks and the vast majority don't warrant a response. But I wanted to bring this particular one regarding Bradley up due to it being a recent issue and for the reasons stated above. Academically, Bradley certainly has the credentials to hold his own with other CW historians and the fact that the CWPT would put their stamp of approval on one of his books gives further proof of his "worthiness" as a professional historian. I also understand that Keith Poulter, editor of NS, will be including Dr. Bradley in some future discussion and articles. I look forward to his contributions.

Perhaps some of these criticisms were motivated by a bit of jealousy?

*In addition, Bradley has been a fellow with the National Endowment for the Humanities and was also a National Science Foundation Fellow. Bradley is the recipient of the Jefferson Davis Medal in Southern History and is a member of the Southern Historical Association, the American Society of Church History, the American Association of University Professors, the Great Smoky Mountains Natural History Association, and the Society for Military History.

'Colored Confederate' has his day in Monroe

'Colored Confederate' has his day in Monroe By Donald W. Patterson
Staff Writer
Friday, July 18
updated 1:40 pm

Mattie Clyburn Rice of High Point will take part in an unusual ceremony today, but then, she’s an unusual woman.

She’s the 87-year-old daughter of Weary Clyburn, a “colored Confederate,” a slave who served in the Civil War.

“His is a hero’s service,” said Earl L. Ijames, a curator at the N.C. Museum of History. “Him serving is really an incredible story.”

Rice feels the same.

That’s why she’s agreed to allow the Sons of Confederate Veterans and the town of Monroe to honor her father’s memory this afternoon.

SCV officials say it’s rare for their organization to pay tribute to a former slave.

“They are few and far between,” Michael Chapman, commander of an SCV group near Monroe, said of today’s ceremony. “If a family doesn’t want their (relative) honored, we are not going to do that.”

Equally rare will be Rice’s participation. Nationwide, records show that only 30 daughters of Confederate veterans still survive. Officials with the United Daughters of the Confederacy could not say how many are African Americans.

What’s important to Rice is that after decades of searching, she’s been able to document her father’s past.

Rice and her family have declined requests for interviews, saying they would talk about Weary at a news conference after the ceremony in Monroe.

“She’s not the kind of person who wants the limelight,” Ijames said. “I told her this whole event vicariously honors the thousands of 'colored Confederates’ who served in various capacities and never had a voice to express it.”

As a child growing up on a Union County farm, Rice listened to her father’s stories about the war.

For years, Rice had tried to find records to support her father’s claims and convince her own daughters that their grandfather had served in the Confederacy.

Then, three years ago, she found the man who had the answers.

“It’s such a special story the way this unfolded,” said Ijames (pronounced Iams). “I don’t believe in coincidence. I think it’s the Lord orchestrating stuff.”

Records show that Weary Clyburn was born about 1841 on the plantation of Thomas Clyburn in Lancaster County, S.C.

Thomas Clyburn had a son, Frank, who was about two years younger than Weary.

“They were best friends and grew up together,” Ijames said. “That’s not an uncommon story.”

In 1861, Frank joined what would become Company E of the 12th S.C. Volunteers. Soon after, Weary escaped the plantation and joined Frank, serving as his bodyguard.

Twice, Ijames said, Weary saved Frank’s life. Once, Frank had been wounded in a battle near Charleston and later during fighting near Petersburg, Va. Both times, Weary carried his master off the field under fire.

Ijames believes Weary probably fought alongside Frank because Rice described her father as an expert marksman.

Weary also recounted that he performed personal services for Gen. Robert E. Lee, a claim that Ijames said has not been confirmed.

However, Frank, an officer, and Weary served under Lee throughout the war, and Weary would name one of his sons Lee.

After Lee surrendered at Appomattox, Frank and Weary walked back to Lancaster County together.

After the war, Weary worked as a sharecropper and painter. Frank became a state senator.

About 1920, Weary moved to Union County. In 1921, his wife, Eliza, gave birth to a daughter, Mattie.

The birth certificate listed Eliza’s age as 32; Weary was in his late 70s.

It was his second marriage.

In 1926, when he was 85, Weary applied for and received a Confederate pension. The application described him as “too old to work and too proud to beg or steal.”

The amount of the pension isn’t known, but it would have been his first governmental compensation for his war service.

After her father’s death in 1930, Rice treasured a picture he had given her. Historians believe it shows Weary in 1913 at the 50th Gettysburg reunion.

On his lapel, he’s wearing what appears to be a Confederate veterans medal.

As Rice looked for documentation of her father’s past, Ijames had been researching “colored Confederates.”

“It may raise an eyebrow,” Ijames said of the phrase, “but historically, it is accurate.”

So far, his research has turned up more than 250.

“Frank wasn’t the only officer who brought his slave with him,” Ijames said. “It was a common occurrence.”

Ijames still marvels at the day in August 2005, while he was still working in the Office of Archives and History, that Rice wandered in.

She had traveled to Raleigh with two of her daughters in search of her birth certificate. But those documents are kept at the state Health Department.

“It was so hot outside, I didn’t have the nerve to tell her she was in the wrong place,” Ijames recalled.

While Rice cooled off, Ijames struck up a conversation. When he learned her maiden name was Clyburn, he asked, “on a whim,” if she knew Weary Clyburn.

“Lord, have mercy,” Rice responded. “How do you know my daddy?”

“Your daddy?” Ijames replied. “You wait right here.”

He hurried off to get Weary’s pension records, and Rice soon had her answers.

“Lord, have mercy,” she said. “I’ve been searching for 75 years for records on my daddy.”

This proved what she had been telling her family for years.

“The daughters were aghast,” Ijames said. “For families (like theirs), there tends to be a lot of discussion about whether this (kind of information) should be made public. I got the feeling the same thing went on in their family.”

When the Sons of Confederate Veterans told Rice they wanted to honor her father, she agreed.

Today, there’ll be a parade, honor guard and the reading of proclamations. The group also will place a small Veterans Administration stone at Weary’s unmarked grave in Hillcrest Cemetery.

In a news release, the group said it wanted to honor Weary “for his faithful friendship, heroism under fire and the devotion to the principles in which he believed.”

Contact Donald W. Patterson at 373-7027 or

Tuesday, July 15, 2008


-----In his own words...... Pay close attention to the last comment!! From Dreams of My Father: 'I ceased to advertise my mother's race at the age of 12 or 13, when I began to suspect that by doing so I was ingratiating myself to whites.' From Dreams of My Father : 'I found a solace in nursing a pervasive sense of grievance and animosity against my mothers race.'From Dreams of My Father: 'There was something about him that made me wary, a little too sure of himself, maybe. And white.' From Dreams of My Father: ; 'It remained necessary to prove which side you were on, to show your loyalty to the black masses, to strike out and name names.' From Dreams of My Father: 'I never emulate white men and brown men whose fates didn't speak to my own. It was into my father's image, the black man, son of Africa , that I'd packed all the attributes I sought in myself, the attributes of Martin and Malcolm, DuBois and Mandela.' From Audacity of Hope: 'I will stand with the Muslims should the political winds shift in an ugly direction.'Publication history for 'From Dreams of My Father'


Did you know that 52 of the 55 signers of The Declaration of Independence were orthodox, deeply committed Christians? The other three all believed in the Bible as the divine t ruth, the God of scripture, and His personal intervention.It is the same congress that formed the American Bible Society. Immediately after creating the Declaration of Independence, the Continental Congress voted to purchase and import 20,000 copies of scripture for the people of this nation.Patrick Henry, who is called the firebrand of the American Revolution, is still remembered for his words, ' Give me liberty or give me death.' But in current textbooks the context of these words is deleted. Here is what he said: 'An appeal to arms and the God of hosts is all that is left us. But we shall not fight our battle alone. There is a just God that presides over the destinies of nations. The battle sir, is not of the strong alone. Is life so dear or peace so sweet as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it almighty God. I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty, or give me death.'These sentences have been erased from our textbooks.Was Patrick Henry a Christian? The following year, 1776, he wrote this 'It cannot be emphasized too strongly or too often that this great nation was founded not by religionists, but by Christians; not on religion, but on the Gospel of Jesus Christ. For that reason alone, people of other faiths have been afforded freedom of worship here.'Consider these words that Thomas Jefferson wrote on the front of his well- worn Bible: 'I am a Christian, that is to say a disciple of the doctrines of Jesus. I have little doubt that our whole country will soon be rallied to the unity of our Creator and, I hope, to the pure doctrine of Jesus also.'Consider these words from George Washington, the Father of our Nation, in his farewell speech on September 19, 1796:'It is impossible to govern the world without God and the Bible. Of all the dispositions and habits that lead to political prosperity, our religion and morality are the indispensable supporters. Let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion. Reason and experience both forbid us to expect that o ur national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle.'Was George Washington a Christian? Consider these words from his personal prayer book: 'Oh, eternal and everlasting God, direct my thoughts, words and work. Wash away my sins in the immaculate blood of the lamb and purge my heart by the Holy Spirit. Daily, frame me more and more in the likeness of thy son, Jesus Christ, that living in thy fear, and dying in thy favor, I may in thy appointed time obtain the resurrection of the justified unto eternal life. Bless, O Lord, the whole race of mankind and let the world be filled with the knowledge of thy son, Jesus Christ.'<>Consider these words by John Adams, our second president, who also served as chairman of the American Bible Society.In an address to military leaders he said, 'We have no government armed with the power capable of contending with human passions, unbridled by morality and true religion. Our constitution was made only for a moral and religious people. It is wholly inadequate to the government of any other.'How about our first Court Justice, John Jay?He stated that when we select our national leaders, if we are to preserve our Nation, we must select Christians. 'Providence has given to our people the choice of their rulers and it is the duty as well as the privilege and interest of our Christian Nation to select and prefer Christians for their rulers.'John Quincy Adams, son of John Adams, was the sixth U.S. President.He was also the chairman of the American Bible Society, which he considered his highest and most important role. On July 4, 1821, President Adams said, 'The highest glory of the American Revolution was this: it connected in one indissoluble bond the principles of civil government with the principles of Christianity.'Calvin Coolidge, our 30th President of the United States reaffirmed this truth when he wrote, 'The foundations of our society and our government rest so much on the teachings of the Bible that it would be difficult to support them if faith in these teachings would cease to be practically universal in our country.'In 1782, the United States Congress voted this resolution: 'The congress of the United States recommends and approves the Holy Bible for use in all schools.'William Holmes McGuffey is the author of the McGuffey Reader, which was used for over 100 years in ou r public schools with over 125 million copies sold until it was stopped in 1963. President Lincoln called him the 'Schoolmaster of the Nation.'Listen to these words of Mr. McGuffey: 'The Christian religion is the religion of our country. From it are derived our notions on character of God, on the great moral Governor of the universe. On its doctrines are founded the peculiarities of our free institutions. From no source has the author drawn more conspicuously than from the sacred Scriptures. From all these extracts from the Bible I make no apology.'Of the first 108 universities founded in America, 106 were distinctly Christian, including the first. Harvard University, chartered in 1636. In the original Harvard Student Handbook rule number 1 was that students seeking entrance must know Latin and Greek so that they could study the scriptures:'Let every student be plainly instructed and earnestly pressed to consider well, the main end of his life and studies is, to know God and Jesus Christ, which is eternal life, John 17:3; and therefore to lay Jesus Christ as the only foundation of all sound knowledge and learning. And seeing the Lord only giveth wisdom, let everyone seriously set himself by prayer in secret to seek it of him (Proverbs 2:3).'For over 100 years, more than 50% of all Harvard graduates were pastors!It is clear from history that the Bible and the Christian faith, were foundational in our educational and judicial system. However in 1947, there was a radical change of direction in the Supreme Court.Here is the prayer that was banished:'Almighty God, we acknowledge our dependence on Thee. We beg Thy blessings upon us and our parents and our teachers and our country.Amen ' In 1963, the Supreme Court ruled that Bible reading was outlawed as unconstitutional in the public school system. The court offered this justification: 'If portions of the New Testament were read without explanation, they could and have been psychologically harmful to children.'Bible reading was now unconstitutional , though the Bible was quoted 94 percent of the time by those who wrote our constitution and shaped our Nation and its system of education and justice and government.In 1965, the Courts denied as unconstitutional the rights of a student in the public school cafeteria to bow his head and pray audibly for his food.In 1980, Stone vs. Graham outlawed the Ten Commandments in our public schools.The Supreme Court said this: 'If the posted copies of the Ten Commandments were to have any effect at all, it would be to induce school children to read them. A nd if they read them, meditated upon them, and perhaps venerated and observed them, this is not a permissible objective.'Is it not a permissible objective to allow our children to follow the moral principles of the Ten Commandments?James Madison, the primary author of the Constitution of the United States, said this: 'We have staked the whole future of our new nation, not upon the power of government; far from it. We have staked the future of all our political constitutions upon the capacity of each of ourselves to govern ourselves according to the moral principles of the Ten Comma ndments.'Today we are asking God to bless America. But how can He bless a Nation that has departed so far from Him?Most of what you read in this article has been erased from our textbooks. Revisionists have rewritten history to remove the truth about our country's Christian roots. I , Mary Jones, the designer of this web page, encourage all who read and agree with the words herein, to share it with others, so that the truth of our nation's history may be told.

From mystery to history: the story of Gen. Patrick R. Cleburne’s once-lost pistol

Unless you’re a real Civil War buff, meaning, you’re fairly knowledgeable about Civil War-era small arms, you’re not likely to have much interest in the news that Confederate General Patrick R. Cleburne .36 caliber Colt revolver is coming to Franklin, Tennessee. The revolver will be displayed with his Kepi, or hat, that he was wearing on the evening he was killed in the Battle of Franklin on 30 November 1864. But you don’t have to be a Civil War afficionado to appreciate a great story, and the story of how Cleburne’s pistol is making its way back to Franklin, after more than 143 years, is quite amazing.

The story behind how the Cleburne pistol ended up in the worthy possession of the Layland Museum in Cleburne, Texas, has all the intrigue of a mystery-novel and the hoopla, at times, of a story right out of Ripley’s Believe-It-Or-Not.
The last time the Kepi and pistol were together: early December 1864
The story starts 30 November 1864, when CSA General Patrick R. Cleburne, himself an Irish-born immigrant, was killed by a single-shot to the chest. Gen. Cleburne was carrying a .36 caliber Colt revolver during the Confederate assault upon the Yankee breastworks near the Carter farm in Franklin, Tennessee.
The next morning, Cleburne’s body was removed to the local field hospital, the McGavock residence, also known as Carnton. What is clear is what was missing on his person when his body arrived that morning: his boots, diary and sword belt. Later in the day, Cleburne’s aide, Lt. Leonard Mangum, found the sword belt with another soldier. What is unclear is just what immediately happened to the pistol. There is no record of it being stated as missing, but then there is also no record stating positively what had happened to it. Carnton historian Eric Jacobson believes that the McGavock’s never had the pistol. The pistol finally shows up in Texas much later. How it got there may likely always be a mystery.
The bodies of four Confederate Generals were placed on the back porch at Carnton on Thursday morning, December 1st, 1864. Besides Patrick Cleburne, it is believed that Generals Strahl, Granbury and Adams’s bodies were placed on the porch, beneath the windows on the right.
What happened with the pistol between 1864 and 1900 is a real mystery.
The next 30 years roughly - 1870s to 1900 - were murky history at best. We’re really not sure what exactly happened with the pistol during that period of time.
The story can be fairly confidently picked up in the mid 1890s, though with some reliance upon the veracity of oral tradition. It seems that a Texas man, perhaps a veteran Confederate soldier or descendant, had found himself as owner of the ‘precious’. However, in the mid 1890s he found himself down on his luck and decided to sell the pistol to improve his lot. So the pistol transfered into the hands about this time to a man named Seakrats.
Seakrats, circa 1900, apparently recognized the inscription on the weapon enough to decide that a local Confederate Veterans Camp - Pat Cleburne Camp #88 - might be the right home for the revolver. So Seakrats turned the precious relic over to the Pat Cleburne Camp #88 around the turn of the twentieth century. Does the story end there? Not even close.
What happened to the pistol from 1900 to roughly 1913?
The Captain of Camp #88 was O.T. Plummer. In an effort to verify the pistol as having originally been owned by Cleburne, he had the Camp Adjutant, Matthew Kahle, take the gun to Helena, Arkansas. Cleburne lived in Helena prior to the outbreak of the Civil War. Post-war veterans and colleagues of Cleburne still lived there and were able to attest to its authenticity. The Helena group verified it as unequivocally having belonged to Patrick Cleburne. However they thought the best home for it would be Helena. But, not feeling he was authorized to give it to them, Kahle returned to Cleburne, Texas - named after the General - with said-treasure in stow.
So, from 1900 - 1913, the much-coveted relic was in the possession of a man named James Voluntine Hampton in Cleburne, Texas. The story continues and the twists and turns got even wilder.
What happened between 1913 and 1944? Possibly stolen.
Mr. Hampton walked into the new Cleburne county courthouse in 1913 and revealed he had the pistol. Apparently, he handed over the revolver where it promptly was placed into a desk-drawer where it was kept for years; how many we’re not sure. There is some belief that the pistol may have even been stolen during the Great Depression era and was possibly missing for at least a decade, leading up to 1944.
The next chapter is incredible. A couple boys found the gun on the banks of the Nolan River in 1944. They sold it to a scrap dealer for the princely sum of $5 dollars. By now, it was in fairly poor condition. The dealer noticed an inscription, and after confirming with the town Sheriff that it appeared to be Cleburne’s name on it, they contacted the President of the local United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC) chapter, who just happened to be the daughter of . . . . O.T. Plummer. She agreed it was authentic and bought it for $5 bucks. Thus the proud owner of the ‘precious’ in 1944 is now the UDC. End of story? Nope.
Mystery again between 1955 to 1970.
From 1944 until 1955, it’s not altogether clear where exactly the gun was stored. But in 1955, it resurfaced again when a gun-restorer offered to restore it, which he did. He apparently was not the best restorer of small-arms weapons - at least not this one. The attempt to restore it saw the degradation of some of the engravings on the barrel, frame and cylinder. However, the inscription of “P. R. Cleburne” on the backstrap largely avoided any damage and remained intact and clearly legible.
In 1960, the gun was moved to the National Guard Armory - a former WWII United States Government-leased property for utilization as a German prisoner of war camp. After the armory was closed in the late 1960s, the pistol wound up in Austin, Texas. Around 1970, it was put on display in the State Capitol in their Civil War room.
What happened to the pistol from 1971 to 1978?
Still looking for a permanent resting place, the revolver was returned back to Cleburne, Texas, in 1971, where it was superintended by the Chamber of Commerce . . . . who ended up giving it back to the UDC. The UDC allowed the pistol to become part of the Layland Museum in Cleburne, Texas, in 1978, where it has been ever since.
Where is the pistol now?
And finally . . . in March, 2007, the UDC chapter that owned it, donated it to the Layland Museum.
End of story? Sort of . . .
The story will turn full circle on June 20th, 2008, at Carnton Plantation in Franklin, Tennessee, when for the first time since December 1st, 1864, the original Cleburne pistol is reunited with the original Cleburne Kepi, or hat, that the General - Stonewall of the West - wore into battle the fateful Indian summer evening on Wednesday, 30 November 1864.
As Cleburne strode into battle that evening, a fellow General had commented to the Irish commander that the prospect of the forthcoming assault of John Bell Hood’s Army of Tennessee did not look promising at all, to which Patrick Cleburne replied, “Well Govan, if we are going to die, let us die like men.”
General Cleburne, sir.
To you, we tip your hat this day, as we celebrate the reunion of your Kepi and pistol, on the very ground you shed your blood upon, for a cause you deemed worthy, paying the last full measure of devotion. Rest in peace, General.
Your Humble, Obedient Servants . . . .
The Franklin, Tennessee, community
Note: The above article was written by Kraig McNutt, Director of The Center for the Study of the American Civil War, and fellow member of The Franklin Civil War Roundtable. Assistance with research was provided by Carnton historian Eric A. Jacobson; Carnton Curator Manager, Joanna Stephens; and Curator of The Layland Museum, Ben Hammons.
Want to see the pistol and Kepi in-person?
The Cleburne pistol and Kepi will be on display at Carnton in Franklin, Tennessee from the 15th through the 21st of June at Carnton. On Friday, the 20th, there is a 7:30 p.m. reception that is FREE to the public. Historian Thomas Cartwright will speak about Cleburne’s upbringing and life; and Carnton historian, Eric A. Jacobson, will speak about Cleburne’s military service.